[tlhIngan Hol] Use of *-'e'* with adverbials

luis.chaparro at web.de luis.chaparro at web.de
Tue Oct 19 08:43:58 PDT 2021

Thank you for your reply, SuStel.

>> 1. Is this position optional or mandatory?
> It appears to be optional. "The adverbial may actually follow the object noun..."


> I think the stanza in paq'batlh you're referring to is indeed doing this object-fronting.

Sorry, but with *object-fronting* do you mean here (in the PB) topic or focus?

Only to be sure if I've understood it properly (I'm taking as a reference the classification you made in this post: http://lists.kli.org/pipermail/tlhingan-hol-kli.org/2021-October/018287.html):

a. The use in relative clauses and in copulas is clear. If not speaking about the subject or object of a relative clause or about a copula, then:
b. When *-'e'* goes on a subject, it's always focus.
c. When *-'e'* goes on an object which is not hanging out at the beginning of a sentence, it's focus.
d. When *-'e'* goes on a noun / noun phrase which is hanging out at the beginning of a sentence, it can be topic or focus (object as focus).

I've written some examples and I would be very glad to know if they are correct. Thank you for your patience!

1. paq'e' yIje' - Topic - As for the book, buy it - Context: We're speaking about several things, I've mentioned the book before and now I want to speak again about it and say something new about this matter (you should buy it).
2. paq'e' yIje' - Focus - Buy THE BOOK - Context 1: You aren't sure if you should buy the book or the movie and I want to encourage you to buy the book, not the movie / Context 2: You've misunderstood me, you think I've said: *Buy the movie*, but I've meant the book, not the movie, so I repeat my sentence emphasizing *book*.
3. paq'e' DaH yIje' - Topic - As for the book, buy it now - Same as above with adverbial. The version *DaH paq'e' yIje'* is not possible as topic.
4. DaH paq'e' yIje', paq'e' DaH yIje' - Focus - Buy THE BOOK now - Same as above with adverbial.
5. paq'e' (DaH) 'ay' wa'DIch yIje' - Topic - As for the book, buy the first part (now) - Since we already have an object, *paq'e'* cannot be focus.
6. paq'e' (DaH) 'ay' wa'DIch'e' yIje' (?) - Topic and focus (?) - As for the book, buy THE FIRST PART (now) - buy now the first part, not the second one or the complete book

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