[tlhIngan Hol] Use of *-'e'* with adverbials

SuStel sustel at trimboli.name
Tue Oct 19 06:59:53 PDT 2021

On 10/19/2021 9:37 AM, luis.chaparro at web.de wrote:
> In this thread (http://lists.kli.org/pipermail/tlhingan-hol-kli.org/2021-October/018262.html) was recently discussed how *-'e'* works, so I want to take this opportunity to ask something I've been wondering for a while.
> In the Addendum to TKD we find this sentence: *HaqwI''e' DaH yISam*. The translation (*Find the SURGEON now!*) makes it clear that *-'e'* works here as focus. An object with *-'e'* can precede an adverbial. But:
> 1. Is this position optional or mandatory?

It appears to be optional. "The adverbial /may/ actually follow the 
object noun..."

>   And:
> 2. What could be a suitable context for this sentence (focus interpretation)?
> 3. Since *HaqwI''e'* ends here at the beginning of the sentence, could it also be interpreted as topic? (*As for the surgeon, find her / him now!*). And if so, would the correct interpretation only depend on context?
> 4. At the beginning of PB, is the use of *-'e'* with *DaH tIQoy* topic?

Focus and topic are related concepts, and I think this fronting of the 
object is taking advantage of that.

This rule comes from a line in /Star Trek VI,/ where, after /Kronos 1/ 
has been fired upon and artificial gravity has been lost, Chancellor 
Gorkon commands, *chang'e' DaH Sam*/Find Chang now!/ In this context, I 
believe the sentence can be interpreted like so: /Chang! Find him now!/ 
That is, it's using the object noun as a topic instead of a focus. And 
separating the object from the object position might be a way to doing that.

The parallel sentence in TKD gives us what seems to be a focus 
interpretation (*HaqwI''e' DaH yISam*/Find the SURGEON now!/), but no 
context is given, so it's a little hard to interpret.

I think the stanza in /paq'batlh/ you're referring to is indeed doing 
this object-fronting.

*naDev Sughompu'
     Suto'vo'qor wIghoSmeH ngoQmaj'e'
     DaH tIQoy*

/Hear now,
     All of you here,
     Why we go to Sto-vo-kor./

As an aside related to past discussions, notice how Okrand has chosen to 
translate /Hear now, all of you here:/ *naDev Sughompu' / DaH 
tIQoy*///All of you have gathered / Hear now./ No trying to combine 
*Hoch* and *tlhIH* or mismatching prefixes or relative clauses or 
anything like that.

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