[tlhIngan Hol] expressing "especially"

mayqel qunen'oS mihkoun at gmail.com
Fri Oct 15 05:02:59 PDT 2021

Thank you charghwI', voragh, SuStel, and nIqolay Q for sharing your
thoughts. Comments on specific parts of your messages follow.

> Meanwhile, going back to the original, I think this is a weird use of the
English word “especially”.
> Yes, it is neither clear nor specific.

True, the original sentence is unclear and unspecific. I remember that the
need for expressing "especially" came when I saw a sentence saying
something like:

"This god was especially a god of .."

And I couldn't quite understand what the actual meaning was. So the need
came to find a way to express "especially" in the same unclear and
unspecific way. I thought "if the original is unclear, then the translation
should be unclear too". So I said to myself "translate it in a similar
unclear way, and good luck to the reader figuring out what the actual
meaning is; as if anyone is ever going to read the klingon translation

So I did it using the {-chu'}, in a manner similar to the sentence that I
wrote in the initial post:

"he is a god of rain, thunder, and especially hurricanes"
{SISmoH tuDmoH 'ej vungmoHchu' Qunvam}

But reading the various replies of this thread, I was happy to see that
there are many more options.

> nov nuH 'oH thalaron woj'e';  lulo’qu’ rIymuSnganpu’.
> Thalaron radiation is an alien weapon; the Remans use it a lot.

Indeed, I could use the {-qu'} too: {SISmoH tuDmoH 'ej vungmoHqu' Qunvam}

> nov nuH 'oH thalaron woj'e'. pIj (nuHvam) lulo’ rIymuSnganpu’’e’.
> Thalaron radiation is an alien weapon.  The Remans use it (this weapon)

I hadn't thought the possibility of using an adverb, but indeed an adverb
could work too: {SISmoH tuDmoH 'ej roD vungmoH Qunvam}

> I think more along the lines of {tlhInganpu’ qu’ law’ Hoch qu’ puS} or
{tlheylaran Qob law’ Hoch Qob puS}.
> In other words “especially” suggests “uniquely” or “to an extreme degree
that is unique’. It’s special because it is extreme.

Using the law'/puS construction is another wonderful idea, which didn't
cross my mind. So, I could write:

{SISmoHlaH tuDmoHlaH 'ej vungmoHlaH Qunvam, 'ej laHDaj wejDIch potlh law'
Hoch potlh puS}

nIqolay Q:
> nov nuH 'oH thalaron woj'e', lulo' rIymuSnganpu''e'.
> "Thalaron radiation is an alien weapon, Remans in particular use it."

I think that at some point the thought of using the {-'e'} did cross my
mind, but I got the feeling that if I used the {-'e'} this way, perhaps the
meaning would become that "of all the alien races, it is only the remans
who use the weapon". But I understand now that this would be the case only
if we wrote {nov nuH 'oH thalaron woj'e', lulo' rIymuSnganpu' neH}.

nIqolay Q:
> Or one with somewhat more controversial grammar:
> nuH 'oH thalaron woj'e', lulo' novpu' rIymuSnganpu''e' je
> "Thalaran radiation is a weapon, aliens and especially Remans use it."

I really really *really* like this! But why do you characterize its'
grammar as controversial? I can't find something weird in the grammar of
this sentence.

And reading your suggestion, I got another idea too:

nuH 'oH thalaron woj'e', lulo' nov, 'ej lulo' je rIymuSngan'e'

I hadn't ever thought of the possibility of using the {-'e'} with the {je}
"too", but I think that perhaps it could be another nice way of expressing

Again, thank you all for sharing your thoughts. Your messages gave me many
beautiful ideas and options.

Ζεὺς ἦν, Ζεὺς ἐστίν, Ζεὺς ἔσσεται· ὦ μεγάλε Ζεῦ
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