[tlhIngan Hol] {'e' qa'} "instead of" with the {qa'} bearing suffixes

De'vID de.vid.jonpin at gmail.com
Mon Nov 22 12:04:58 PST 2021

On Mon, 22 Nov 2021 at 20:01, Will Martin <willmartin2 at mac.com> wrote:

> I believe that it was explained that for the normal use of the verb {qa’}
> the subject is the thing that replaces the object, not the person who
> causes one thing to replace another, so the examples given here are
> erroneous.

That explanation applies to {qa'} without {-moH}. With {-moH}, the subject
causes the replacement, the thing doing the replacing takes {-vaD}, and the
thing which is replaced remains the object. The examples are correct.

> Your original use, {yan qa’chugh pu’, maQap} is grammatically complete and
> correct. You can always add context. Say your group presented you with a
> plan to attack someone with swords, your suggestion would be a good
> response if you wanted them to use phasers instead of swords.
> You could also probably say {yanvaD pu’ DIqa’moHpu'} to mean “We replaced
> swords with phasers," based on {SoHvaD tlhIngan Hol vIghojmoH}, which is
> apparently the way to use {-moH} when added to a verb that has separate
> causer, subject-of-action-of-verb, object-of-action-of-verb. I may be
> corrected this point. It’s one of my weaker areas of Klingon grammar.

You've reversed the thing being replaced and the thing doing the replacing.
{yanvaD pu' DIqa'moHpu'} means "we have replaced phasers with swords".

Look at the following parallel:

{tlhIngan Hol Daghoj [SoH]} "you learn Klingon"
{quHDaj qaw ghaH} "He (Worf) remembers his heritage"
{yan qa' pu'} "phasers replace swords"

Adding {-moH}:

{SoHvaD tlhIngan Hol vIghojmoH} "I teach you Klingon" - the object remains
{tlhIngan Hol}, the original subject of {ghoj} takes {-vaD}
{ghaHvaD quHDaj qawmoH [Ha'quj]} "[the sash] reminds him (Worf) of his
heritage" - the object remains {quHDaj}, the original subject of {qaw}
takes {-vaD} (example from SkyBox card 20)
{pu'vaD yan DIqa'moH} "we replace swords with phasers" - the object remains
{yan}, the original subject of {qa'} takes {-vaD}

I think the way to think about it is that {-vaD} marks the thing that the
subject of {verb-moH} causes to do {verb}. So if {pu'} was originally
replacing something, then {pu'vaD ... DIqa'moH} means we cause {pu'} to
replace something.

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