[tlhIngan Hol] adverb locative adverb time stamp

SuStel sustel at trimboli.name
Thu Mar 17 10:56:22 PDT 2022

On 3/17/2022 1:40 PM, Will Martin wrote:
> Totally in agreement with SuStel. There’s a reason Klingon grammarians 
> prefer the word “adverbials” instead of “adverbs”.

Weeeeeeellllll, actually, Klingon grammarians call them *qunI',* and 
don't distinguish between /adverbs/ and /adverbials,/ because those are 
English words and they do Klingon linguistics in Klingon.

> In English, and adverb typically modifies a verb or an adjective 
> "aword or phrase that modifies or qualifies an adjective, verb, or 
> other adverb or a word group”.

Weeeeeeellllll, actually, adverbs are a part of speech and single words, 
while adverbials are phrases that act like adverbs.

Strictly speaking, the *QongDaqDaq* in *QongDaqDaq Qotbe' tlhInganpu'* 
is an adverbial in the sense that it modifies the way the action is 
performed. But we already have a set of words we call adverbials, so 
there's no point confusing the terminology that way.

> Okrand used the word “adverb” because he was writing for a general 
> audience, including people not as familiar with the word “adverbial” 
> as with “adverb”.

I think Okrand called them adverbials instead of adverbs because he made 
the point that Klingon linguists only recognize three parts of speech: 
nouns, verbs, and leftovers. Since a word like *pIj* has the part of 
speech of "leftover," not "adverb," but it acts like an adverb, he 
called it an adverbial: a word that isn't an adverb but is acting like one.

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