[tlhIngan Hol] pronoun with {-taH} pronouns with {-taH} vs {tu'lu'}

Will Martin lojmitti7wi7nuv at gmail.com
Thu Jun 30 05:58:57 PDT 2022

To my ear, {tu’lu’} is making a statement, “There are many ships.” You are adding to that statement that the ships are on Kronos.

{bIHtaH} is focused on where the ships are.

Both say the same thing. It’s just that the {bIHtaH} sentence structure is introduced to us in TKD as a way of saying where things are, while {tu’lu’} is introduced to us as a way of saying that something exists. Since the many ships exist, and they have a location, this particular sentence is conveying meaning that is an overlap between these two kinds of expressions.

While you are at it, consider:

Qo’noSDaq law’ Duj.

This is yet another sentence saying the same thing, but again, there’s a difference in flavor. All three versions give you the same information. On Kronos, ships are many. On Kronos there are many ships/one discovers many ships. Many ships are on Kronos.

nuqDaq bIH Duj law’? 
Qo’noSDaq bIHtaH Duj law’.

Duj vISuqnIS. 
Qo’noSDaq Duj law’ tu’lu’.

Qo’noSDaq puS’a’ Duj? 
gobe’. Qo’noSDaq law’ Duj.


charghwI’ ‘utlh
(ghaH, ghaH, -Daj)

> On Jun 30, 2022, at 8:06 AM, D qunen'oS <mihkoun at gmail.com> wrote:
> Qo'noSDaq Duj law' tu'lu'
> Qo'noSDaq bIHtaH Duj law''e'
> Don't both sentences mean the same? The way I understand them, they both mean "at kronos there are many ships".
> So, when should someone use {tu'lu'} and when should he use the pronoun with {-taH} variation?
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> Dana'an
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