[tlhIngan Hol] {net X} vs. {'e' Xlu'}

De'vID de.vid.jonpin at gmail.com
Sat Jun 11 04:41:03 PDT 2022

Le sam. 11 juin 2022 à 11:17, D qunen'oS <mihkoun at gmail.com> a écrit :

> I can write for instance:
> tlhIngan Hol ghojlu'chu' 'e' chavlu'chugh..
> if someone achieves that he perfectly learns klingon..
> Meaning that the same (unspecified) person that learns klingon perfectly
> is the person doing the achieving.

Right. "If one achieves learning Klingon perfectly..." The learner is the

On the other hand, if I want to say "if someone unspecified achieves that
> someone else (unspecified as well) learns Klingon perfectly..", then I'll
> write:
> tlhIngan Hol ghojlu'chu' net chavchugh..
> if someone achieves that he perfectly learns klingon..

"If it is achieved that someone learns Klingon perfectly..."

The difference is whether the achievement is attributed to the learner.

Suppose I'm training a class of Federation cadets to be diplomats,
linguists, or spies, and I'm talking what an achievement it would be if
someone learns Klingon perfectly. {tlhIngan Hol ghojlu'chu' 'e'
chavlu'chugh} would mean that the achievement is associated with the
unspecified someone who learned Klingon perfectly. {tlhIngan Hol ghojlu'
net chavchugh} would mean that the achievement is general. (It's an
achievement by the class, by the Federation, or whatever. The achiever is
unstated. The goal of having someone learn Klingon perfectly is just

If I understand things wrong, or if we're (still) not allowed to use {Xlu'
> 'e' Ylu'}, then please do tell me because I'm about to start {Xlu' 'e'
> Ylu'}ing as if there's no tomorrow.

We now have an explanation of a grammatical construction that we've
observed before, but wasn't clearly explained. If context calls for it, go
ahead and construct similar sentences.

Also, this isn't restricted to {Xlu' 'e' Ylu'}, but applies to complex
sentences of other types as well (e.g., with type 9 verb suffixes). For
example, {Suvlu'taHvIS Doy'choHbe'lu'} "one does not become tired while
(one is) fighting". It seems useful to understand how such constructions

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