[tlhIngan Hol] Time elements and *qaStaHvIS*, continuous and perfective aspect
sustel at trimboli.name
Mon Feb 28 10:00:09 PST 2022
On 2/28/2022 12:41 PM, luis.chaparro at web.de wrote:
>> wa'leS rep wa'maH loS jISoppu'; ghIq juH vIjaHpu' means that I'm looking forward to tomorrow, where there will be a point at which I can look back at 2 pm and see that that's when I ate and then subsequently went home. In English, this is only expressed with the future perfect: Tomorrow at 2 pm I will have eaten, and then I will have gone home.
> I understand it. I was just wondering if there could be another interpretation beyond English grammar, since Klingon doesn't express perfect, but it does express perfective. So I was thinking maybe it could be possible to interpret it *also* as a future counterpart of *I ate at 2 p.m. and then I went home*, with the same aspectual implications but in the future (actions considered as a completed whole, not expressing its internal structure and not being perfect). (Although it's not exactly the same, I was led to these questions because Future Simple in Spanish is said by some linguists to be able to express imperfective and perfective aspects, depending on the situation). But if you say that's not the case in Klingon, then my question is answered.
I think you misunderstand. The Klingon version set in the future is also
a completed whole with no internal structure. *wa'leS rep wa'maH loS
jISoppu'*/Tomorrow I will have eaten at 2 pm/ is describing the eating
as a completed whole and is not describing its flow over time. In
English, this can only be expressed with the future perfect, but that
says nothing about how it's expressed in Klingon. There is no formula
that says "This tense in English turns into this aspect in Klingon."
The Klingon sentence verb *jISoppu'*//refers to an act of eating that is
completed and does not have its flow over time detailed, whether the act
takes place in the past, present, or future. In English, we can express
*jISoppu'* in the past as /I ate//, I have eaten, /or /I had eaten,/
depending on whether and when the status of having eaten is important;
in the present as /I have eaten;/ and in the future as /I will have eaten./
Yesterday, there was a point at which my eating occurred. I'm not saying
anything about how it proceeded, just that it did proceed.
*As of now, my eating is complete. It has just ended. I'm still not
saying anything about how it proceeded, just that it did proceed.
*Tomorrow, there will be a point at which my eating has just occurred
and is completed. I'm still not saying anything about how it proceeded,
just that it did proceed.
*Yesterday, there was a point during which I was eating. I'm describing
that moment. I'm not saying that it went on or that it was finished,
just that it occurred.
*Right now, my activity is eating. I'm not saying that it will go on or
that it has been or will be completed, just that that's my current activity.
*Tomorrow, there will be a point during which I will be eating. I'm
describing that moment. I'm not saying that will go on or that it will
be or will have been completed, just that it will occur.
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