# [tlhIngan Hol] Time elements and *qaStaHvIS*, continuous and perfective aspect

SuStel sustel at trimboli.name
Mon Feb 28 09:04:48 PST 2022

```On 2/28/2022 11:47 AM, luis.chaparro at web.de wrote:
> SuStel:
>
>>>>> *I will eat at 2 p.m. and then I will go home* would also be *jISoppu'* and *vIjaHpu'*.
>>>> No, I will eat is not perfective. It isn't describing a completed action. The eating is not being described as a completed whole. Same with the going home. wa'maH cha' vatlh rep jISop; ghIq juH vIjaH.
>>> Is there any situation in which the English Future Simple can be translated into Klingon perfective?
>> I can't think of one.
> I was thinking about this and I would like to ask the question the other way: regardless the fact that English Future Simple cannot be translated into Klingon perfective, would *wa'leS rep wa'maH loS jISoppu', ghIq juH vIjaHpu'* make any sense in Klingon without giving it an interpretation of perfect (*Tomorrow at 2 p.m. I will have eaten*)? I mean, is it possible to interpret it as a future counterpart of the past perfective *wa'Hu' rep wa'maH loS jISoppu', ghIq juH vIjaHpu'* (*Yesterday, I ate at 2 p.m. and then I went home*)? Since Klingon expresses aspect I don't see why it could not be possible, but maybe I'm missing something.

*wa'leS rep wa'maH loS jISoppu'; ghIq juH vIjaHpu'* means that I'm
looking forward to tomorrow, where there will be a point at which I can
look back at 2 pm and see that that's when I ate and then subsequently
went home. In English, this is only expressed with the future perfect:
T/omorrow at 2 pm I will have eaten, and then I will have gone home./

If you say instead *wa'leS rep wa'maH loS jISop; ghIq juH vIjaH,* this
corresponds to English simple future: T/omorrow at 2 pm I will eat, and
then I will go home./ This doesn't take a future viewpoint in which you
are looking backwards at completed events; it's taking a viewpoint of
now and looking forward into the future, seeing each action as they
occur. *jISop*/I will eat/ (not continuous, not perfective, just
describing the action in the moment it occurs, which happens to be in
the future) and *jaH vIjuH*/I will go home/ (the same).

> By the way: if we were talking about an habit, *I ate at 2 p.m. and then I went home* would be *rep wa'maH loS jISop, ghIq juH vIjaH*, right?

/I ate at 2 pm, and then I went home/ is only a habit if it means "It
was my habit to eat at 2 pm and then go home." If that is what you mean,
then *rep wa'maH loS jISop; ghIq juH vIjaH* is correct, although it
lacks any indication that thsi is a habit or in the past. For instance,
*naH jajmeywIj, Hoch jaj rep wa'maH loS roD jISop; ghIq juH vIjaH*/In my
youth, every day at 2 pm I would eat, and then I would go home./ Notice
that I used /would,/ the past tense of /will:/ in English, it is common,
but not required, to express this sort of thing this way. I could also
say /In my youth, every day at 2 pm, I ate, and then I went home./

--
SuStel
http://trimboli.name
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