[tlhIngan Hol] Time elements and *qaStaHvIS*, continuous and perfective aspect

Will Martin willmartin2 at mac.com
Thu Feb 24 06:35:52 PST 2022

Since you don’t mention what it is you are enduring, another option for your bonus question would be:

‘ewropngan’e’ masIQ.

As for Europeans, we endure.

The noun suffix {-‘e’} has been used in canon to set the scope of a statement, and since the prefix indicates a subject with no object, the subject, “we”, must be Europeans.

Otherwise, you probably should just assume that we know who “we” are from context.

I think that “we” is the strangest grammatical person in both English and Klingon, since there’s an inclusive version (including those being spoken to) and an exclusive version (encompassing a group that does not include those being spoken to). Cherokee apparently differentiates between the two, though I think it does it by not having what you’d consider first person plural, instead constructing it out of elements, like “you and I” or  “he and I” or “they and I”.

If it is important that there be an object, then you can create the context in a separate sentence, which is the fix for a LOT of “What if I want to say X in Klingon?” questions.

‘eropngan maH. wISIQ.

charghwI’, retired.

> On Feb 23, 2022, at 9:16 AM, SuStel <sustel at trimboli.name> wrote:
> Bonus question:
>> Sorry, I forgot to ask this at the very beginning of this thread: could *we europeans endure it* be translated as *wISIQ maH 'ewropngan* (as an apposition)?
> This is a common question that we don't have a good answer to. I personally don't think so, at least not as a unit. I could imagine 'ewropngan being included parenthetically (wISIQ maH, 'ewropngan we, Europeans, endure it) but we don't have any clear instances of parenthetical splices in Klingon.
> -- 
> SuStel
> http://trimboli.name
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