[tlhIngan Hol] {'e' qa'} "instead of" with quotations

SuStel sustel at trimboli.name
Wed Oct 6 06:57:29 PDT 2021

On 10/6/2021 7:59 AM, mayqel qunen'oS wrote:
> Suppose I write:
> < Duv > jatlhpu' 'e' DaSov
> you know that he said "advance"
> Since there's no rule prohibiting placing a quotation before the {'e'} 
> of a sao (as long as the verb after the {'e'} isn't a verb of speech), 
> seemingly/apparently this sentence would be correct.

Be careful. What you're doing isn't placing a quotation before the 
*'e';* you're treating a sentence-as-object construction (the verb of 
saying and its quotation) as the first sentence of another 
sentence-as-object construction. You're nesting SAOs.

The structure is not this:

<quote> < <jatlhpu'> 'e' DaSov>

The structure is this:

< <quote> jatlhpu' > <'e' DaSov>

You could also say it like this:

< jatlhpu' <quote> > <'e' DaSov>

> So, similarly, wouldn't the following be correct too?
> < HeD > jatlhpu'; < HIv > jatlhpu' 'e' qa'
> instead of saying "attack" he said "retreat"

Yes, I would accept that. The fact that the "replacement" is a 
sentence-as-object instead of a basic sentence appears to be of no import.

> Of course, one could argue that the {'e'} of the {'e' qa'} isn't the 
> "classic" {'e'} of a sao, but if that's the case, then even better, right?

It /is/ the classic *'e'* of an SAO. When you're saying

<sentence1>; <sentence2> 'e' qa'

You need the *'e', *because it literally means /it replaces that 
<sentence2>./ It's only when you're /instead/-ing noun phrases that 
*'e'* is not required.

*'awje' vItlhutlh; HIq qa'
'awje' vItlhutlh; HIq 'e' qa'
*/I drink root beer instead of alcohol./

Technically, the *'e'* in the above sentence is ungrammatical, but 
Klingons may say it anyway. But when dealing with full sentences, the 
*'e'* is required and is the same old *'e'* we've always known.

*jIQam; jIba' 'e' qa'
*/I stand instead of sitting./

This is literally /I stand; it replaces that I sit./ You cannot say 
*jIQam; jIba' qa',* because the object of *qa'* /replace /cannot 
directly be a sentence. You need the pronoun to stand in for it.

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