[tlhIngan Hol] Present tense and context

Will Martin willmartin2 at mac.com
Thu Jun 24 04:29:41 PDT 2021

I’d suggest that in all languages, communication is incomplete and leans heavily upon context. “Can you swim?” has a very different meaning on the deck of the Titanic right after hitting the iceberg. 

Klingon doesn’t provide the vague clue about time context that tense would provide. Instead, you anchor time with a stamp and make relative adjustments with the suffixes discussed here, or you don’t provide a time stamp, relying on context, or failing that, you communicate incompletely, hoping the listener guesses well. 

Mindful communication requires more work for the speaker and less guessing for the listener. 

Sent from my iPhone. 

> On Jun 24, 2021, at 6:13 AM, luis.chaparro at web.de wrote:
> Voragh:
>> Yes, you can use {-pu'} with {-DI'} but it's not common. In fact, I could only find one example:
>> 'uQ wISoppu'DI' maja'chuq
>> We will talk after dinner. (PK)
>> You can also use {-ta'} with {-DI'} :
>> lojmItDaj veghta'DI' jubbe'wI'
>> yInqa'meH chegh 'e' botnIS qotar
>> qeylIS HoHmeH qotar qeylIS SamnIS
>> Still, Kotar cannot let a mortal
>> Pass his gates and return alive,
>> Kahless must be hunted down and killed. (PB)
>> QIStaq 'emDaq jenchoH jul,
>> yor DungDaq Salta'DI'
>> tagh HarghchuqmeH poH
>> The sun rises high behind the Kri'stak,
>> When it rises over its top,
>> It is time to do battle. (PB)
>> I couldn't find any examples of {-pa'} with a Type 7 aspect suffix however.
> Thank you very much for this helpful information! If I understand you correctly, these are all canonical examples with *-DI'* and a perfective suffix, not just those that relate to the present / future? I mean, there is no canon of *-DI'* or *-pa'* with a perfective suffix, but in a past context? Are the canonical examples in the past always without perfective suffix? Thank you again!
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