[tlhIngan Hol] Difference between "all X" and "all of X"

SuStel sustel at trimboli.name
Fri Jun 21 07:32:26 PDT 2019

On 6/21/2019 9:53 AM, mayqel qunen'oS wrote:
> There's something I don't understand, which perhaps has to do with the
> fact that english is not my native language.
> What's the difference between "all X" and "all of X" ?
> Suppose I say {vIghro' Hoch mutmey}, which means "all species of the cat".
> And now suppose I say {vIghro' mutmey Hoch}. which means "all of the
> species of the cat".
> Is there a difference in meaning between these two ? And if yes what ?
> Because, I can't*feel*  anything different between them.

First I'll explain the difference between /all X/ and /all of X./

/All X/ means there are multiple X's, and you're looking at the set of 
all of them. /All of X/ means there is one X and you're considering 
every part of it.

In Klingon, according to rules Okrand has given us and rules we've 
extracted from the canon, *Hoch Xmey* means /all X/ and *X Hoch* means 
/all of X./ *Hoch X* means /each X:/ there are multiple X's, and you're 
looking at all of them one by one.

Now regarding your sentence *vIghro' Hoch mutmey.*

Once again your noun-scoping defies my senses. I would say this *Hoch 
vIghro' mutmey*/all species of cat./ Here's why. In your sentence, 
you're starting with *mutmey* /species./ What kind of species? *Hoch 
mutmey*/all species./ Fine so far. But then you put another noun in 
front. What kind of all species? Does that question even make sense? 
Well, it's the cat kind of all species.

Here's what makes more sense. Start with *mutmey*/species./ What kind of 
species? C/at species, /*vIghro' mutmey.*//Which kind of cat species? 
All of them: *Hoch vIghro' mutmey.*

Now on to your actual question. What, if anything, would *vIghro' mutmey 
Hoch* mean? Let's look at something a bit more obvious first. *vIghro' 
pach*/cat's claw./*vIghro' pach Hoch*/all of the cat's claw, every part 
of the cat's claw./

So what is every part of multiple species? It might be the same as all 
species, but I rather think this is a phrase that wouldn't be used. You 
wouldn't use *Hoch* after a plural countable noun. Mass nouns are fine: 
*bIQ Hoch*/all of the water, every part of the water.**/Inherently 
plural nouns might be fine if Klingon conceive of them as singular sets 
of things, like *ngop Hoch*/all of the set of plates./ (In this case you 
might not say *Hoch ngop,* because you'd be talking about every one of 
the only set of plates.)

In summary:

*Hoch Xmey:*//the set of all countable X
*Hoch X:* each member of the set of all countable X
*X Hoch: *the entire portion of a single X or an uncountable X
*X HochHom:* most of the entire portion of a single X or an uncountable X

By the way, some people try to use this incorrectly to mean /all of 
X///(they get tripped up by the English phrase /whole X/):

*X naQ:* an X that is not a partial X


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