[tlhIngan Hol] Expressing "must"

SuStel sustel at trimboli.name
Mon Nov 14 13:01:59 PST 2016

On 11/14/2016 3:40 PM, mayqel qunenoS wrote:
> the {-nIS}, expresses "need"; it isn't equivalent with the english "must".
> if I write {jIQongnIS}, then this means "I need to sleep". I need to 
> sleep because I am exhausted. Similarly {jISopnIS}, is "I need to 
> eat"; I *need* to eat, because I'm starving.
> But what if I want to express "must" ? The must doesn't necessarily 
> express "need". Mainly it expresses "obligation". Mainly it expresses 
> "necessity".
> So, I thought that perhaps in order to express the "must", we could 
> use the {'ut}.
> Example: "because you're a bad cat, I must tickle you" {vIghro' mIgh 
> SoHmo' vIqotlh. 'ut.}

Here's a better way: *vIghro' qab SoHmo' qaqotlh net raD*/because you 
are a bad cat, I am compelled to tickle you./

> However there is a problem. In the above example, while the english 
> sentence describes a necessity to perform an action in the future 
> (near or not so near), the klingon one doesn't. It says "because 
> you're a bad cat I tickle you. it is necessary".
> So, in order to get the job done, we only need to place a {tugh} in 
> the beginning, or any other appropriate time stamp and we're good to go.

Your Klingon example does not express past, present, or future, so one 
does not necessarily expect it to mean that you'll tickle the cat RIGHT 
NOW. You're just being vague. Your time-stamp solution is making the 
situation specific.

My use of *net raD* is not the One True Way of translating /must,/ but 
it often does a good job.


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