[tlhIngan Hol] Expressing "must"

André Müller esperantist at gmail.com
Tue Nov 15 07:35:35 PST 2016

I do not have any strong opinion on {-nIS} and for which kind of obligation
to use it. But I have a fairly complete corpus of sentences, and the
following are the ones for the suffix {-nIS}. They contain all sentences
with this suffix that I'm aware of, including the ones from the paq'bath.
The ones marked with * after it are sentences lacking an English
translation, where I came up with one myself.

For many sentences one could argue in length if it's an outside force and
if consequences are implied, and I leave this discussion to others. Maybe
someone wants to go through them and have a look.

If you find anything interesting, please let us know!

- - - - - - -8< - - - - - -


«I need to see him/her.»


«You need to eat.»

mataHmeH maSachnIS.

«To survive, we must expand.»

yInlu'taH 'e' bajnISlu'.

«Survival must be earned.»

DaH jIbwIj vISay'nISmoH.

«I must wash my hair now.»

jaghpu' mo' wIyajnIS. [slang]

«We must understand the enemies' motive.»


«We certainly need to eat.»


«I need to create it.»

yay chavlu' 'e' bajnISlu'.

«Victory must be earned.»


«Attack them now, while we still can!»

vergh 'ach DIlnISbe'

«free parking»

Qel vISamnIS.

«I need to find a doctor. / I need a doctor.»


«I could track them down...*»

DungDaq legh 'ej QotnIStaH romuluSngan be'pu'!

«Romulan women belong on their backs!»

chalDaq DapawmeH wutlhDaq bInejnIS.

«To reach the heavens, you must seek underground.»

nIteb bIwuqnIS.

«The choice is yours.»

qaghobnISchugh maghobchuq!

«I will fight you if I must!»

molor DaQapbe'nISmoH.

«Molor must be stopped.»

jISeH'eghnIS[,] / muDechbogh Dochmey vISeHnIS[,] / Hoch vISeHnIS.

«I must take control / Of myself, my surroundings, everything!»

lojmItDaj veghta'DI' jubbe'wI' / yInqa'meH chegh 'e' botnIS qotar.

«Still, Kotar cannot let a mortal / Pass his gates and return alive.»

qeylIS HoHmeH qotar qeylIS SamnIS.

«Kahless must be hunted down and killed.»

bImej 'e' vIchaw'mo' / ghe'tor cheghDI' loDnI'wI' vavwI' je[,] / chaH

«In return, you must go back / With your brother and father / To the

jIlay'ta' 'ej batlh jIpabta'[,] / vaj choDanIS.

«I have kept my word of honor, / And so should you.»


«He/she/they need(s) to not disagree. / He/she/they need(s) to agree.»


«He/she/they do(es) not need to disagree.»

ngajmo' jajvam, nom bIlopnIS.

«Because this day is short, you have to celebrate it quickly.*»

tugh QInvam lulaDlaH ghojwI'pu' chu' 'ej QaHnISbe' jatlhwI'pu' po'qu'.

«Soon the new learners can read this message and the expert speakers don't
need to help.*»

- - - - - - ->8 - - - - - -

I haven't entered the sentences from that aeronautics museum presentation
yet. And Voragh might have some more sentences that I lack. So mine are not

- André

2016-11-15 16:05 GMT+01:00 SuStel <sustel at trimboli.name>:

> On 11/14/2016 5:40 PM, Lieven wrote:
> I only see that canon examples sometimes use "must" and sometimes "need".
> Maybe it's me again proving my lack of english knowledge that you see more
> than I do? Or is this up to personal interpretation?
> Here's <http://www.engvid.com/modals-of-necessity/> an excellent video
> explanation of the difference between *need* and *have to* (and *have to*
> equals *must*). It says that *have to* focuses on the consequences of not
> doing something, while *need* focuses on the benefit of doing something.
> If you *have to* do something, there is some agency requiring it of you;
> this is not the case with *need.*
> However, the reality isn't all that clear-cut. People interchange *need,
> must,* and *have to* all the time.
> For instance, while *nIteb SuvnIS DevwI' *is translated with *must*
> instead of *need,* there is no sense in this sentence that any agency is
> imposing lone-fighting on a leader; rather, it's saying that a leader has a
> personal necessity of lone-fighting. So don't count too much on these terms
> having distinct meanings when used in colloquial English.
> Now, if someone wants to pull up a few instances of *-nIS* being used
> where an agency is imposing an action and consequences of failure on the
> subject, and not just instances where the English translation uses *must,*
> I'll be happy to revise my opinion.
> --
> SuStelhttp://trimboli.name
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> tlhIngan-Hol mailing list
> tlhIngan-Hol at lists.kli.org
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