[tlhIngan Hol] Expressing "must"

SuStel sustel at trimboli.name
Tue Nov 15 07:05:49 PST 2016

On 11/14/2016 5:40 PM, Lieven wrote:
> I only see that canon examples sometimes use "must" and sometimes 
> "need". Maybe it's me again proving my lack of english knowledge that 
> you see more than I do? Or is this up to personal interpretation?

Here's <http://www.engvid.com/modals-of-necessity/> an excellent video 
explanation of the difference between /need/ and /have to/ (and /have 
to/ equals /must/). It says that /have to/ focuses on the consequences 
of not doing something, while /need/ focuses on the benefit of doing 
something. If you /have to/ do something, there is some agency requiring 
it of you; this is not the case with /need./

However, the reality isn't all that clear-cut. People interchange /need, 
must,/ and /have to/ all the time.

For instance, while *nIteb SuvnIS DevwI'//*is translated with /must/ 
instead of /need,/ there is no sense in this sentence that any agency is 
imposing lone-fighting on a leader; rather, it's saying that a leader 
has a personal necessity of lone-fighting. So don't count too much on 
these terms having distinct meanings when used in colloquial English.

Now, if someone wants to pull up a few instances of *-nIS* being used 
where an agency is imposing an action and consequences of failure on the 
subject, and not just instances where the English translation uses 
/must,/ I'll be happy to revise my opinion.


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