[tlhIngan Hol] {-vaD} {-moH} combination front slot missing middle slot missing and the {'e'} of a sao

SuStel sustel at trimboli.name
Thu May 19 08:23:36 PDT 2022

On 5/19/2022 10:57 AM, D qunen'oS wrote:
> SuStel:
> > These two sentences mean the same
> > thing, but you would generally see it
> > expressed as the latter.
> Ok, I understand this, thanks. But there's something else I'm 
> wondering too.
> Suppose I take the sentence {puqvaD paq luyajmoH ghojmoHwI'} and 
> rewrite it omitting the {puqvaD}:
> paq luyajmoH ghojmoHwI'
> Could this new sentence mean too "the teachers cause someone 
> unspecified to understand the book"?
> Or is that the only thing it can mean is "the teachers cause the book 
> to understand" as if the book was alive or something?

Yes, it can mean "The teachers cause someone unspecified to understand 
the book."

Please understand that *-moH* is not the "shift subject into object" 
suffix. It is the "subject does not do the thing but causes the thing to 
be done" suffix. What happens with the object depends largely on what 
you want to say.

*paq vIyajmoH.* This doesn't mean I understand the book, it means I 
cause understanding of the book. It might also mean I cause the book to 
understand, but that's probably a nonsense interpretation.

As a general pattern in Klingon, when the subject causes the action to 
be performed instead of performing it, the "object" could be either the 
direct object (that which the action is performed upon) or the indirect 
object (that which receives the result of the action). Both are 
"objects" in Klingon. Use common sense to distinguish which one is 
meant. Potentially, mark the indirect object explicitly with *-vaD, 
*because that's something that Klingon does. When you have both a direct 
and indirect object, you /must/ mark the indirect object with *-vaD* to 
distinguish it from the direct object. That's where we get *ghaHvaD 
quHDaj qawmoH.*

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