[tlhIngan Hol] adverb {rut} {motlh} and aspect {-pu'}

D qunen'oS mihkoun at gmail.com
Wed May 4 05:46:15 PDT 2022

> During the previous summer, I never/always ate pizza.
> (I'm describing specific instances of (not) pizza-eating, so this is
> The first one is perfective if you're describing specific instances of
eating or not eating pizza,
> but the English doesn't necessarily mean that. I always/never eat pizza
COULD mean the same
> thing as I would always/never eat pizza, so its perfectiveness is
ambiguous outside of context.

I'll write an example to see if I understand this correctly.

"In ancient Greece people always honored the gods of Olympus"

Outside of context this English sentence could mean either of the following

1. Specific instances of honoring the gods which were always happening.
2. "In ancient Greece people would always honor the gods" (describing
something which used to happen) (imperfective)

So, suppose I write:

reH 'elaDya' tIQDaq olympus Qunpu' quvmoHpu' nuvpu'
(this is the translation of the number 1 above)

reH 'elaDya' tIQDaq olympus Qunpu' quvmoH nuvpu'
(this is the translation of the number 2 above)

Would you agree?

Ζεὺς ἦν, Ζεὺς ἐστίν, Ζεὺς ἔσσεται· ὦ μεγάλε Ζεῦ
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