[tlhIngan Hol] info from paq'batlh that's not really new

Will Martin lojmitti7wi7nuv at gmail.com
Fri Jun 24 05:55:12 PDT 2022

My read of this is that word roles are assigned within the structure of a sentence, while this example “conjoins” nouns in a structure larger than a sentence. In this case {je} is not a conjunction. It’s an adverb. It’s one of those places where “also” is as good of a translation as “and”, as in the difference between, “I bought an orange and an apple,” vs. “I bought an orange. I also bought an apple,” or “I bought an orange; also an apple.” Basically, if you’ve already parsed your sentence and completed it, but you want to add something the adverbial sense allows you to do that, while the conjunction really needs to be joining nouns that, together, form a plural that functions as a noun in the one sentence. You wouldn’t string together “I bought an orange also an apple.” Klingon has one word {je} for these two different words “and” and “also” in English.

The translation could have been equally good as “Also you, sons of Kahnrah”.


charghwI’ ‘utlh
(ghaH, ghaH, -Daj)

> On Jun 24, 2022, at 8:35 AM, D qunen'oS <mihkoun at gmail.com> wrote:
> De'vID:
> > It's not elided. Both of the conjoined nouns are written.
> > {tlhIH(1), SuvwI'pu' Hem,} "You, proud warriors,"
> > {boghIjlu''a'?} "Are you afraid?"
> > {tlhIH(2) je, qanra' puqloD,} "And you, sons of Kahnrah,"
> Ok, I can understand this.
> But again, the nouns being conjoined aren't in the same sentence. They're at different sentences. 
> So, (if I understand this correctly) I can say to a singer: {SoH bItlhIb, bIbomtaHvIS, qoghDu'wIj vIpoSnISmoH}, and then say to another singer {SoH je, bIbomtaHvIS, vIghro'mey HoH ghoghlIj}.
> The thing I'm wondering though is whether for this to work, on the first sentence we would necessarily need to write the {SoH}, or whether we would only need the second one.
> -- 
> Dana'an
> https://sacredtextsinklingon.wordpress.com/ <https://sacredtextsinklingon.wordpress.com/>
> Ζεὺς ἦν, Ζεὺς ἐστίν, Ζεὺς ἔσσεται· ὦ μεγάλε Ζεῦ
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