[tlhIngan Hol] 'eSpanya' 'ewrop je (Beginner's text and questions)

SuStel sustel at trimboli.name
Thu May 27 13:39:44 PDT 2021

On 5/27/2021 4:32 PM, luis.chaparro at web.de wrote:
> Sorry, but I forgot to write the word*past*  in my sentence. I actually wanted to say: I thought this sentence (*QaQqu'*) could be understood as imperfective *past* if I don't say 
> that Spain is still a member (since the reader could believe Spain is 
> no longer a member and thus understand the being good as imperfective 
> past, instead of present). However, if I don't only say Spain became a 
> member in 1986, but I add (to clarify) that it's still a member now 
> (*DaHjaj lochtaH*), then the reader will likely interpret *SepwIjvaD 
> QaQqu' ghu'vam*  as present and not (imperfective) past. Am I right or am I messing it up?

Whether something is interpreted as past, present, or future entirely 
depends on context, not what suffixes you use.

If I say *DaHjaj lochtaH 'eSpanya',* then *SepwIjvaD QaQqu' ghu',* since 
we know that *ghu'* is referring to a situation that is still in effect, 
we'll know you mean that the situation that is still in effect is very 
good for your country.

If, on the other hand, I said something like *'ewrop DIvI' muvpu'DI' 
'eSpanya', SepwIjvaD QaQqu' ghu',* it's clear that the good situation 
we're talking about is the one occurring just after Spain had joined the 
EU, and so it being good for your country was true at that time.

It's all to do with context. The same sentence could mean different 
things in different contexts.


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