[tlhIngan Hol] 'eSpanya' 'ewrop je (Beginner's text and questions)

luis.chaparro at web.de luis.chaparro at web.de
Thu May 27 04:21:16 PDT 2021

>>1. With *'ewrop DIvI' loch 'eSpanya', qaStaHvIS DIS 1986 lochchoHpu'* I tried to get the meaning of *since*. Is there another way to say it (*since a point in the past >>till now*)?
>This is pretty much how I'd do it. You don't need the qaStaHvIS, though: a time expression is enough to say that something happened at a particular time: DIS 1986 >lochchoHpu' it became a constituent in the year 1986.

Thank you again for your help, SuStel! Your posts, also on the Duolingo Forum, are a great help for beginners!

>You could shorten this even more if you want: DIS 1986 'ewrop DIvI' lochchoHpu' 'eSpanya' Spain became a constituent of the European Union in the year 1986.

This was my first attempt, but then I was afraid it could be ambiguous (maybe the readers think Spain is no longer a member and they understand the *SepwIjvaD QaQqu' ghu'vam* as imperfective past). Although... maybe it was a little overly cautious, since context (e.g., the fact that I don't make a contrast between Spain being a member in the past and not being a member in the present) should make it clear. Unfortunately, I don't feel confident enough in Klingon yet to assess that accurately.
>>2. I was not sure if *loch* only works for mathematics and *yugh* only for chemistry. If it is so, how could I say *be a part / member of* and *consist of* in >>Klingon?
>I think loch works fine here. We are told that loch is used in mathematics, but we aren't told that loch is only used in mathematics.

I assume the same goes for *yugh*, right? 
>>3. With *SepwIjvaD QaQqu' ghu'vam* I mean *this situation IS very good for my country*. But if I want to say that the fact of becoming a member of the European >>Union WAS very good for my country, would something like *QaQpu'qu' ngoDvam* work? I'm actually thinking of the Spanish form *fue* (perfective), which I would use >>here instead of *era* (imperfective), but I don't know if this works in Klingon similarly.
>If you want to talk about states, use ghu'. If you want to talk about events, use wanI'. If you want to talk about general facts, use ngoD. But don't overuse them: >they're not pronouns.

Thank you for the explanation. Actually, I didn't like the fact that I was using so much these words, but I was a bit overwhelmed trying to express my ideas in Klingon. Now I think I could have used some *vaj*, *-ghach* or other more specific words.

>>So if you want to say that Spain's member status is good, say QaQ ghu' the situation is good. If you want to say Spain's joining was good, say QaQ wanI'. You can >>also be more specific, saying things like QaQ muvpu'ghach having joined was good or QaQ lochchoHghach becoming a member was good.
>>Don't use perfective here: the joining being good hasn't ended. The joining has, but the being good hasn't. You can look back on the joining and still see that it >>was good.

Sorry, I didn't explain my question well. Let's say I want to express the joining was at that point in the past good (regardless of its still being good or not) because at that point in the past it solved a specific problem of Spain, and I speak about this problem. I'm only talking about the being good of this event in order to solve that problem in the past. Or to make it clearer: Let's say we speak about the UK. Is *QaQpu'qu'* right in this context? (Or should it be *QaQqu'pu'*?). Thank you!

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