[tlhIngan Hol] 'eSpanya' 'ewrop je (Beginner's text and questions)

SuStel sustel at trimboli.name
Wed May 26 09:39:09 PDT 2021

On 5/26/2021 10:59 AM, luis.chaparro at web.de wrote:
> qen jIjatlhpu’ DoyIchlan Dabbogh 'eSpanya'ngan jIH. DaH loQ SepwIj vIrIch vIneH.
> 'ewrop DIvI' loch 'eSpanya', qaStaHvIS DIS 1986 lochchoHpu'. SepwIjvaD QaQqu' ghu'vam, vurchoHlaHpu' 'eSpanya'.
> wa' nugh 'oH 'ewrop'e', 'ach nugh law' yugh. Sepmey tInqu' nganpu'vaD chaq jum ngoDvam. Do'Ha' 'ev chan 'ev mIp law' tIng chan tIng mIp puS. vummeH, ghu'vammo' 'ev chan 'ev lujaH nuv law'. ro' mojchugh ghIt, qabqu' 'ev chan 'ev muD. ghIQmeH, tIng chan tIng lujaH nuv law'. nuvvamvaD roD Daj je tIng chan tIng yIn. boqyIn rur ghu'vam.
> As usual, I would appreciate any help / correction in order to improve my Klingon. I also have three questions:
> 1. With *'ewrop DIvI' loch 'eSpanya', qaStaHvIS DIS 1986 lochchoHpu'* I tried to get the meaning of *since*. Is there another way to say it (*since a point in the past till now*)?

This is pretty much how I'd do it. You don't need the *qaStaHvIS,* 
though: a time expression is enough to say that something happened at a 
particular time: *DIS 1986 lochchoHpu'*/it became a constituent in the 
year 1986./

You could shorten this even more if you want: *DIS 1986 'ewrop DIvI' 
lochchoHpu' 'eSpanya' */Spain became a constituent of the European Union 
in the year 1986./

If you want to emphasize that it is still a member, you could say *DIS 
1986 'ewrop DIvI' lochchoHpu' 'eSpanya'; DaHjaj lochtaH. *//Spain became 
a constituent of the European Union in the year 1986; it remains a 
constituent today.

> 2. I was not sure if *loch* only works for mathematics and *yugh* only for chemistry. If it is so, how could I say *be a part / member of* and *consist of* in Klingon?

I think *loch* works fine here. We are told that *loch* is used in 
mathematics, but we aren't told that *loch* is /only/ used in mathematics.

> 3. With *SepwIjvaD QaQqu' ghu'vam* I mean *this situation IS very good for my country*. But if I want to say that the fact of becoming a member of the European Union WAS very good for my country, would something like *QaQpu'qu' ngoDvam* work? I'm actually thinking of the Spanish form *fue* (perfective), which I would use here instead of *era* (imperfective), but I don't know if this works in Klingon similarly.

If you want to talk about states, use *ghu'.* If you want to talk about 
events, use *wanI'.* If you want to talk about general facts, use 
*ngoD.* But don't overuse them: they're not pronouns.

So if you want to say that Spain's member status is good, say *QaQ 
ghu'*/the situation is good./ If you want to say Spain's joining was 
good, say *QaQ wanI'.* You can also be more specific, saying things like 
*QaQ muvpu'ghach*/having joined was good/ or *QaQ 
lochchoHghach*/becoming a member was good./

Don't use perfective here: the joining being good hasn't ended. The 
joining has, but the being good hasn't. You can look back on the joining 
and still see that it was good.


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