[tlhIngan Hol] Klingon Word of the Day: Sum

Steven Boozer sboozer at uchicago.edu
Tue Jul 13 08:30:55 PDT 2021

Klingon word: 	Sum
Part of speech: 	verb
Definition: 	be nearby

Sum Daqmeyvam, tera'ngan 
These places are nearby, Terran. CK

SumchoH mangghom 'Iw largh 
The army closes in, smelling blood. PB

Daq SumHa'vo' wab Huj Qoylu' 
Strange sounds come from afar (PB, paq'raD 1:13)

pIvghor yIchu' 'ej Duj Sumqu' yIjaH 
Warp to the nearest vessel. MKE

pIvghor yIchu' 'ej HoSHal Sumqu' yIjaH 
Advance to the nearest energy source. MKE

yuQ SumDaq cha'puj law' Datu' 
Detect large sums of dilithium on nearby planet. MKE

(MSN expert.forum 9/1997):  As for how to use {Sum} "be near, nearby' -- that will require some more time with Maltz.  {Do' Sum matlh.}  I would think, however, that it would work the same way as {Hop} "be far".

(qurgh < MO, qep’a’ 2017):  [{Hay} "area beyond" is] normally used with a point of reference:  beyond X. When asked about area nearby Maltz wasn’t sure what was being asked and said to make use of the verb {Sum} "be nearby".

Will Martin interviewed Marc Okrand (HolQeD Decemger 1998:9-10):

   MO: Using the verbs {Sum} and "Hop" involves this concept [of deixis]. 
   WM: So I could not say "raSvam vISum} to say, "I am near the table."
   MO: No. You'd just say {Sum raS}. The verb {Sum} implies that the speaker is the one the subject is near at the time of speaking. {Hop jabwI'.} "The waiter is far from me right now." 
   WM: Well, that resolves the conflict otherwise created if they could take objects. It keeps them stative, so you can say, {HIvje' Sum yItlhap}.
   MO: Yes.
   WM: Otherwise, they'd be the only verbs we'd sometimes use as adjectives and other times use transitively.
   MO: Take an object. Yes.
   WM: So, could that deictic anchor be shifted by using an indirect object? Like if I wanted to say, "You are near the table", could I say {SoHvaD Sum raS}? 
   MO: No. You'd use {-Daq}:  {SoHDaq Sum raS}. This throws the orientation away from the speaker (unmarked, unstated) and to the listener (marked, stated: "at you, where you are"). But you don't always need to state this overtly. Context is critical. For example: {qagh largh SuvwI' ghung. Sum qagh 'e' Sov.} "The hungry warrior smells the gagh. He/she knows the gagh is nearby." The only interpretation of this (absent other information) is that the warrior knows the gagh is near the warrior, not the warrior knows the gagh is near the speaker of the sentences. If context isn't clear, you can clarify: 
        Question: Sum'a' raS?        		Is the table near (me)? (Am I near the table?) 
        Answer:   HIja'. Sum raS.    		Yes. The table is near (you). 
        Answer:   ghobe'. jIHDaq Sum raS. 	No. The table is near me. 
   WM:  And could I say {maSumchuq}? 
   MO: No. You'd just say {bISum} or {SuSum}. If you haven't, in the course of the conversation, set things up otherwise, it's assumed that the event being talked about is taking place where the speaker is. In fact, {jISum} alone probably would make no everyday sense to a Klingon. "I am near me."  But it does have an idiomatic philosophical sense, something like "I'm in touch with my inner self" (but in a Klingon sort of way, of course). 

Hop 		be far (v)

SuvwI' vI' Dub naQvam 'ej ray' HopDaq bachlu'meH chuqna' ghurmoH naQvam 
This serves to steady the aim of a warrior and increase the effective range for distance targeting. S14

Daq HopHa’Daq qa’chaj nejlI’ qotar Qempa’QeH je 
Not far away, Kotar and his Qempa'keh, Are in search for their souls. PB

HaDlu'meH, QuSlu'meH, SuDlu'meH lojmIt Da logh Hop Hut tengchaH. vaj loghDaq lenglaHtaH Humanpu' 
space station Deep Space Nine is the gateway for the exploration, intrigue and enterprise that mark the continuation of the human adventure into space... S99

Daq HopHa’Daq qa’chaj nejlI’ qotar Qempa’QeH je 
Not far away, Kotar and his *Qempa'keh*, are in search for their souls. PB

chuq 		range, distance (n)
retlh 		area beside, next to, beside (n)

Voragh, Ca'Non Master of the Klingons
    Please contribute relevant vocabulary from the last year or two. I’ve fallen 
    behind in updating my files and adding cross-references for related words.  

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