# [tlhIngan Hol] Beginner's text and questions

luis.chaparro at web.de luis.chaparro at web.de
Fri Jul 23 08:36:55 PDT 2021

```qaStaHvIS wej Hogh ret *Cádiz*Daq maghIQtaH be'nalwI' jIH je. DaH DoyIchlan bIr wIcheghpu'.

pIj pa' maghIQ, bIQ'a' HeHmey Dun, vengHommey 'IHqu', jorchanmey Dajqu' je ghajmo' *Cádiz*. *Sevilla*Daq Sum je, vengvamDaq jIboghpu'. *Andalusia*Daq bIH *Cádiz*'e' *Sevilla*'e' je. qaStaHvIS qImroq tuj, yoSvamDaq tujtaH muD, wovtaH jul, chISchu' tamghay.

*Cádiz*Daq muvchuq 'atlantIq bIQ'a' *Mediterranean* bIQ'a' je 'ej 'avrI'qa' leghmeH, 'op Daqvo' mIn neH lupoQlu'. Dojqu' jorchanvam. 'ach reH pa' jIHtaHDI', 'avrI'qa'vo' Sumlaw' je 'ewrop 'e' vIqawnIS. Do'Ha' 'ewrop lughoSmeH, SuDqu' QIlbogh nuv law'. nur, yIn qaq je nej. Do'Ha' roD 'ewropDaq ngeDbe' ghu'chaj.

As usual, I would appreciate any help / correction in order to improve my Klingon. I also have two questions:

1. Is this sentence correct?: *Do'Ha' 'ewrop lughoSmeH, SuDqu' QIlbogh nuv law'.* Or should I say: *'ewrop lughoSmeH, Do'Ha' SuDqu' QIlbogh nuv law'.*? Actually, *Do'Ha'* modifies the whole sentence, but I'm not sure about how it works in Klingon.

2. Regarding my last post about time context (http://lists.kli.org/pipermail/tlhingan-hol-kli.org/2021-June/017546.html): Sorry, but I'm having more problems with this matter than I've expected. Maybe I'm making it more difficult than it is. When I say *pIj pa' maghIQ* I want to say that we often *go* on vacation there, not that we often *went* (imperfective). As I understand it, if someone says *we often went on vacation there* I expect some explanation about why they don't go there anymore or why they have started going there again or something like this. So, if no such explanation comes, we'll interpret *pIj pa' maghIQ* as present, right? And the same goes for the description of the summer weather in this region. (Of course, the sentences about the position of the seas and the cities are not likely to be interpreted as past without further context).

And in a similar way: *Do'Ha' 'ewrop lughoSmeH, SuDqu' QIlbogh nuv law'. nur, yIn qaq je nej. Do'Ha' roD 'ewropDaq ngeDbe' ghu'chaj.* If I wanted to say that many people *risked* (imperfective) their lifes in order to come to Europe, then I would add some temporal context in which this imperfective actions were taking place, like *many years ago* or "during the last two centuries* or something like this. Without further context, the more likely interpretation is present again. Or should I provide some context anyway in order to get the *present* interpretation and, if so, how?

Thank you!

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