[tlhIngan Hol] positioning of je

Will Martin willmartin2 at mac.com
Tue Aug 10 05:49:09 PDT 2021

TKD says a few things about {je}, both as an adverb and as a noun conjunction, and it says a few things about the importance of context. The two placements of {je} you offered would seem perfectly appropriate if preceded by the following context-providing sentences:

- muQoy HoD.
- mulegh je HoD.

- mulegh be’nalwI’.
- mulegh HoD je.

I take TKD at its word and follow the verb with {je} when using it adverbially, not interpreting “follows the verb" to mean “follow the entire verb clause”. If it’s after a noun, I interpret it as a noun conjunction, even if it follows one noun, assuming that context might suggest other nouns to add this one to.


Well, adverbs don’t generally follow verbs. They generally precede them. {je} is an exception. Likely, since the homonym follows the nouns it modifies, the adverb follows the verb it modifies. That’s not explicitly explained in TKD, but it’s just a reasonable idea based on observation.


charghwI’ ‘utlh
(ghaH, ghaH, -Daj)

> On Aug 10, 2021, at 6:01 AM, Lieven L. Litaer <levinius at gmx.de> wrote:
> Hello dear,
> I'm sure this has been discussed before, but I can't find it. So maybe
> the answere is just a reference to the discusion.
> This is one of the few things I keep messing up all the time: TKD says
> {je} comes after the verb, but what if there is a subject after that verb?
> {mulegh je HoD}
> or
> {mulegh HoD je}
> My feeling says that both are correct with a different meaning, but I
> want to be sure.
> --
> Lieven L. Litaer
> aka the "Klingon Teacher from Germany"
> http://www.tlhInganHol.com
> http://klingon.wiki/En/AliceInWonderland
> _______________________________________________
> tlhIngan-Hol mailing list
> tlhIngan-Hol at lists.kli.org
> http://lists.kli.org/listinfo.cgi/tlhingan-hol-kli.org

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