[tlhIngan Hol] nuq'e' / 'Iv'e'

André Müller esperantist at gmail.com
Fri Nov 20 07:26:19 PST 2020

*Discord*-Daq *«-'e'»* mojaq wIrIchtaHvIS lo'meyDaj vIbuS. qen QIj SuStel
'ej meqqu'mo' ghaH, De'wI'wIjDaq mojaqvam QIjbogh ghItlh'e' vIpol. 'ach DaH
SuStel latlhpu' joq vIghelnIS.
mu'tlheghDaq *«'oH, ghaH, bIH, chaH»* lo'lu'chugh SeSorDaq *«-'e'»*
chelnISlu' net Sov. ghantoH: *«Ha'DIbaH 'oH vIghro''e'.»* qay'be'.
ghellu'chugh jaSHa' chelnISlu'. ghantoH: *«nuq 'oH vIghro''e'?»* qay'be' je.
'ach reH mu'tlheghmeyvetlhDaq *De' ngo'*Daq ngam mojaqvam, qar'a'? not De'
ngo''e' 'oS ghelbogh mu' (*«'Iv, nuq»*), qar'a'? vaj tlhIngan Hol pabHa'
bIvlaw' mu'tlheghvam: *«Ha'DIbaH 'oH nuq'e'?»*
'ach *«Hov leng: maQmIgh»* (STID) HaStamuchDaq Qoy'lu': *«DevwI' ghaH
'Iv'e'?»* ‘Who is the leader?’ — vaj latlh lo' ghaj'a' mojaqvam?

*Short version in English:*
In *be*-sentences *-'e'* marks the subject, which SuStel explained as one
of the TOPIC uses of the suffix. Topic means that it marks old information,
so I concluded logically that question words like *nuq* and *'Iv* cannot be
marked by *-'e'*. But there is a sentence in STID, *«DevwI' ghaH 'Iv'e'?»*
‘Who is the leader?’ Is the usage of *-'e'* in *be*-sentences a different
(fourth) usage that is neither topic, focus, nor head-marking in a relative
clause? Or is it perhaps focus just in this one example after all? Or can
we dismiss it saying that Uhura's Klingon isn't quite perfect and
native-like and she made a mistake here (I believe she said this sentence)?

Koran antaŭdankon,
— André
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