[tlhIngan Hol] Metaphor and Metonymy

De'vID de.vid.jonpin at gmail.com
Wed Jun 17 03:03:30 PDT 2020

On Wed, 17 Jun 2020 at 09:25, Lieven L. Litaer <levinius at gmx.de> wrote:

> Hi,
> I just started a page in the Klingon.wiki listing metaphorically used
> words and also metonyms. Okrand did not name them as such, and I noticed
> ther are others that fit in such alist which were not explicitally label
> as such, like {Soj} meaning "matter, affair" instead of "food".
> Then I noticed that many of the idioms use (or are) metaphors, so it
> kind of overlaps. Now come the questions...
> 1. Did anyone ever make such a compilation already?

Not exactly, but if you look at {boQwI'}'s database, sentences which are
idioms are tagged as such (they have "part_of_speech" set to "sen:idiom").
Not all of them are metaphors.

The list isn't that long, so I'll post it here:

beyHom bey bey'a' jachtaH
bIQ ngaS HIvje'.
bIQ'a'Daq 'oHtaH 'etlh'e'.
bo'Dagh'a' lo'
bo'DaghHom lo'
cha'maH cha' joQDu'
cha' DoSmey DIqIp.
cha' qabDu'
Doq bIQtIq bIQ
DoS chIl
ghaH vuv SuS neH
ghe'torvo' narghDI' qa'pu'
Ha'quj nge'
Hoch jaghpu'Daj HoHbogh SuvwI' yIvup.
Hoch nuH qel
jop 'ej way'
latlh HIvje'Daq 'Iw HIq bIr yIqang!
latlh je
may' bom pIm bom
mIn yuq
mIvDaq pogh cha'
mIv je DaS
notlh tonSaw'lIj.
ngaQ lojmIt
ngem Sarghmey tlha'
pel'aQDaj ghorpa'
pe'vIl bI'chu'
pe'vIl roS
pollaH pagh polHa'laH
qabDu' law'
qagh HoH
qIvon belmoH
qul DIr yISop!
quSDaq ba'
ro'lIj HI'ang!
SuD veqlargh mInDu'.
tIngvo' 'evDaq chanDaq
to'waQ yIv
vaj Duj chIj
vIHtaH gho
wa' DoS wIqIp.
wa'maH cha' pemmey wa'maH cha' rammey je
'arlogh Qoylu'pu'?
'ebmey jonHa'
'e' qa'
'IDnar lIl
'IwwIj jeD law' 'IwlIj jeD puS.
'oy'qu' Qay'wI'wIj.

> 2. Would you understand and/or accept words taken from idioms in a
> different context, like if I use {Ha'quj} without the verb {nge'} -
> would you know I talk about somebody's pride? (Well, KGT says that
> phrases outside of context would only be understood literally, but I'd
> ask anyway.)

No, if I thought it wasn't literal, I would think you were talking about
their {tuq}, which is what it's a symbol of.

> 3. Some idioms consist of only a noun phrase, like {naH jajmey}.
> Wouldn't that also be a metonymy?

Some idioms are instances of metonymy, but not all idioms which are noun
phrases are metonyms. {chatlh} meaning "nonsense" is an idiom, but not a

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