[tlhIngan Hol] Proper use of adverbial {je}

SuStel sustel at trimboli.name
Tue Aug 15 07:56:38 PDT 2017

On 8/15/2017 10:32 AM, De'vID wrote:
> On 15 August 2017 at 16:26, mayqel qunenoS<mihkoun at gmail.com>  wrote:
>> As I understand the adverbial use of {je}, as it is described in tkd, and as
>> nIqolay Q explained, we need to have the same verb, repeated twice.
> nuqjatlh? Where does it say the same verb has to be repeated twice?
> The example in TKD is {qaleghpu' je}. There's no repetition of {legh}.

There is an implied repetition. You don't use *je* on a verb without 
context (which TKD mentions explicitly for once). Inherent in the idea 
of *je* is the notion that there is some other thing that was previously 
said to which the *je* is referring.

*je* used with verbs REMAINS A NOUN CONJUNCTION. You are conjoining the 
nouns present in either the object positions of the verbs or the subject 
positions of the verbs./I AND others saw you/ or /I saw you AND others./ 
Let's suppose a full context like so:

    *latlh vIleghpu'; SoH qaleghpu' je
    */I saw others; I also saw you = I saw you and others/

This is equivalent to:

    *latlh SoH je Saleghpu'
    */I saw you and others/

The other interpretation of *qaleghpu' je* goes like this:

    *SoH nIleghpu' latlh; SoH qaleghpu' jIH je
    */others saw you; I saw you too = I and others saw you/

    *SoH pIleghpu' latlh jIH je
    */I and others saw you/

So to reiterate: *je* is a NOUN CONJUNCTION being placed after a verb to 
conjoin one of the nouns of that verb with the equivalently positioned 
noun in another verb.

Now, TKD doesn't explicitly say that the verbs have to be identical, but 
that's a pretty safe bet considering what it means. But then we get the 
SkyBox card with

    *ghop luQan tajHommey. pe'laH je.*

What nouns are being conjoined here? None that I can see; the subject 
*tajHommey* seems to be carried over to the next verb: *pe'laH je */they 
//[the small blades] can also cut./ Here, *je* is functioning 
identically to the sentence conjunction *'ej:* *ghop luQan tajHommey 'ej 
pe'laH*/the small blades protect the hand and they can cut./

It is my opinion that this sentence is in error due to the casual way in 
which we English speakers toss around the word /also. /Okrand was 
thinking, *je* = /also,/ even though the /also/ he was thinking of was 
the *'ej* variety. Doubtless he could come up with some justification 
for this text, but so far he hasn't, and it appears to be a simple error.


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