[tlhIngan Hol] With "joq" - how do we choose the right verb prefix ?

Steven Boozer sboozer at uchicago.edu
Thu Aug 31 11:08:48 PDT 2017

I searched my notes for examples of the conjunctions {joq} and {ghap}  in a complete sentences…

joq                        or,  and/or (noun conj):

       ta'meyDaj boqawDI' SuHemjaj
           mu'meyDaj bojatlhDI' Suvaljaj
          not ta'meyDaj mu'meyDaj joq bolIjjaj

May you remember his deeds with pride,
   May you recite his words with wisdom,
   May they forever be unforgettable.  (PB)

Unfortunately the prefix {bo-} means “you (pl.) [do something to] him/her/it/them” so this is inconclusive.

{joq} was once apparently omitted/implied in SkyBox S21:

 qagh, ro'qegh'Iwchab, targh tIq Sop 'e' lungIl Humanpu' puS
  Few humans dare to eat gagh, rokeg blood pie, or heart of targ.  (S21)

ghap                     or,  either/or (noun conj):

  HIq qIj reghuluS 'Iw HIq ghap jab
  They serve Black Ale or Regulan bloodwine. (CK)

{A B ghap jab} “they serve them” not {lujab} “they serve it”


From: nIqolay Q
Sent: Thursday, August 31, 2017 12:54 PM

I don't think the plurality of phrases with {joq} or {ghap} has ever been discussed. I don't know if there's any examples. My guess is that since {joq} also includes the idea of "and", it should be considered plural. But that's just a guess, and I have no idea what to do with {ghap}, or what to do with the broader question of unknown plurality. We may have to kick this one over to Maltz.

On Thu, Aug 31, 2017 at 12:56 PM, Aurélie Demonchaux <demonchaux.aurelie at gmail.com<mailto:demonchaux.aurelie at gmail.com>> wrote:
While discussing on the "Learn Klingon" group on Facebook, we wondered how to choose the correct verb prefix when "joq" (and / or) is used in the object and / or subject of the sentence.

If we have the structure:

noun1 noun2 joq + verb

Do we consider that the object of the verb is singular or plural ?

Using an example sentence: We need to learn French and / or Klingon.

1/ vIraS Hol tlhIngan Hol joq wIghojnIS.
2/ vIraS Hol tlhIngan Hol joq DIghojnIS

if it were just a "je" we'd use "DI-" without hesitating, or if it were a "ghap" we'd use "wI-", but with joq... ?

Has it already been discussed at some point what to do when you can't determine whether a verb's object / subject is singular or plural ?

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