[tlhIngan Hol] {-Qo'} and {-taHvIS}

Steven Boozer sboozer at uchicago.edu
Fri Sep 2 09:28:03 PDT 2016

mayqel qunenoS wrote:

>> {-Qo'} always occurs last, unless followed by type 9 suffixes.
>> but if I have {-Qo'} and {-taHvIS} together, then what do I do ?
>> {-taHQo'vIS} or {Qo'taHvIS} ?

maygel is right:  {-Qo'} comes last when used with an imperative verb:
(TKD 47):  The suffix {-be'} cannot be used with imperative verbs. For imperatives, the following suffix is required. This negative suffix is used in imperatives and to denote refusal.
   yIja'Qo'         don't tell him/her!
   choja'Qo'chugh   if you won't tell me, if you refuse to tell me,
   HIHoHvIpQo'      don't be afraid to kill me!
Unlike {-be'}, the position of {-Qo'} does not change: it occurs last, unless followed by a Type 9 suffix. Nevertheless, it is considered a rover because it is the imperative counterpart to {-be'}.

More examples from canon:

Be quiet! (Don't speak!) TKD

qaja'pu' HIqaghQo'
HIqaghQo' qaja'pu'
I told you not to interrupt me.
I told you, "Don't interrupt me!"
"Don't interrupt me" I told you. TKD

Do not delay. (ST5 notes) (clipped)

Don't touch me! CK

chuch yIqemQo'
Do not bring ice! PK

QuchwIj roSQo'
Do not lick my forehead! PK (clipped)

Don't stop! SAREK (clipped)

Dujeychugh jagh nIv yItuHQo'
There is nothing shameful in falling before a superior enemy.
("If a superior enemy defeats you, don't be ashamed"). TKW

bISuv 'e' yIwIv; bISutlh 'e' yIwIvQo'
Choose to fight, not negotiate. TKW

ghIlab ghewmey tIbuSQo'
Pay no heed to glob flies. TKW

ghewmey tISuqQo'
Don't catch any bugs. TKW

Ha'DIbaH DaSop 'e' DaHechbe'chugh yIHoHQo'
Do not kill an animal unless you intend to eat it. TKW

pIj monchugh vay' yIvoqQo'
Don't trust those who frequently smile. TKW

nobmey qembogh yIrIDnganpu''e' yIvoqQo'
Don't trust Yridians who bring gifts. TKW

Huch nobHa'bogh verenganpu''e' yIvoqQo'
Don't trust Ferengi who give back money. TKW

yIQeqQo' neH.  DoS yIqIp
Don't just aim; hit the target! TKW

to'waQ yIyIvQo'; DaH yIwuq!
Don't chew ligament; decide now! KGT

Don't forget. KGT

Don't deceive me. KGT

Don't contradict me. KLS

[Leave him! (untranslated)] (ENT "Affliction")

qaStaHvIS wanI'vam yIDachQo'
Don't miss this event! (WSC)

quv HIja'chuqQo'
Don't speak to me of honor. PB

"GO" yIjuSQo'.  cha'vatlh QaS yItlhapQo'.
Do not pass "GO". Do not gain 200 forces.  MKE

> -taHvIS is not a suffix; it is two suffixes. You can also put -neS in there.
>     SoptaHQo'vIS
>        while he is refusing to eat
>     bIqettaHneSvIS
>        while you are running, sir
Although SuStel is right in that these forms are theoretically possible (i.e. prescriptive grammar), in fact we've never seen them "in the field" as it were (i.e. descriptive grammar).   When used with a non-imperative verb to mean "refuse" {-Qo'} follows the TKD rule - i.e. it is only followed by a Type 9 suffix (and only 2 examples known):

if you refuse to speak. TKD

if you won't tell me
if you refuse to tell me  TKD

otherwise {-Qo'} still comes last:

tera'nganvaD romuluS HIq jabQo'
They won't serve Romulan ale to Terrans. CK (clipped?)

'ang'eghQo' quv Hutlhbogh jagh neH ghobtaHvIS ghaH
Only an enemy without honor refuses to show himself in battle. TKW

mamevQo'.  maSuvtaH.  ma'ov.
Battling on through the Eternal fight. (Anthem)

And from Okrand's translation of Shakespeare's Sonnet 116:

 yab matlh muvchuqghach Sorgh vay' 'e' vIbotjaj.
    nge'wI' rurQo' bangna';  SIHlu'be'chu'.
  Let me not to the marriage of true minds
  admit impediments. Love is not love
  which alters when it alteration finds,
  or bends with the remover to remove:

(lit. "A real lover refuses to be like a remover; (s)he is completely unbent")

SuStel also wrote:
> I'm not so sure about -qu' because, while grammatically legal, it would mean
> while CONTINUOUSLY (as opposed to something else), but every Klingon
> while continuous so there is nothing else.
We do have a single example of {-qu'} with {-taHvIS} from Sonnet 116 again:

  ghobe'! qarbejbogh DoDvam qontaH 'u'
  jevqu'taHvIS muD ral, bejlI' parmaq.
  Qombe'! nISbe' jevwI', 'ej not ruS baq.
  Oh, no! It is an ever-fixed mark.
  That looks on tempests and is never shaken.

(lit.  "While the violent atmosphere storms, love still watches")

This, of course, is poetry so the rules may be somewhat relaxed here for effect.

> Likewise with -be', because you can't have while not continuously when every
> while is continuous.
HetaQ one reported that:

  Krankor asked Okrand at qep'a' loSDIch whether {-be'}
 could be inserted between {-taH} and {-vIS} for a suffix
 combination {-taHbe'vIS} (meaning something like "while
 discontinuously"). The answer was: "That's an interesting

and I can find no examples of {-be'}, {-taH} and {-vIS} - in any combination -- used together.

Note too that none of the above examples have an aspectual suffix on the same verb with {-Qo'}.

tlhIngan ghantoH pIn'a'
Ca'Non Master of the Klingons

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