[tlhIngan Hol] Expressing "must"

SuStel sustel at trimboli.name
Wed Nov 16 12:52:06 PST 2016

On 11/16/2016 3:44 PM, Alan Anderson wrote:
> On Tue, Nov 15, 2016 at 10:05 AM, SuStel <sustel at trimboli.name 
> <mailto:sustel at trimboli.name>> wrote:
>     Now, if someone wants to pull up a few instances of *-nIS* being
>     used where an agency is imposing an action and consequences of
>     failure on the subject, and not just instances where the English
>     translation uses /must,/ I'll be happy to revise my opinion.
> I thought of one such example immediately, but I didn't respond 
> because I expected it to have been in the list presented by André. Now 
> that I've had time to read the rest of the thread, I see he didn't 
> include it.
> From Conversational Klingon: {vagh rep bImejnIS} "Check­out time is 5 am."
> That certainly counts as an imposed requirement, even if a penalty for 
> noncompliance is not explicitly stated.

Yes, that's definitely a valid example of a "must" form of *-nIS*.

> There's also {lupwI' DalIghnIS} "You must ride the jitney." I think it 
> too is a relevant example, but I can accept someone disagreeing with 
> that assessment..

I agree that it's likely a valid example, and I can see why it might be 
controversial as one. It's in response to the question, *pa' 
jIyIt'a'*/do I walk there? /(which is translated /can I walk there?/). 
It could go either way.


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