[tlhIngan Hol] Expressing "must"

Lieven levinius at gmx.de
Mon Nov 14 14:40:35 PST 2016

Am 14.11.2016 um 22:58 schrieb SuStel:
> But there /is/ a distinction between being required to do something and
> having a need to do something. It is not at all clear to me that Klingon
> *-nIS* covers both.

I only see that canon examples sometimes use "must" and sometimes 
"need". Maybe it's me again proving my lack of english knowledge that 
you see more than I do? Or is this up to personal interpretation?

"You need a rest"

{ghob tIvnISbe'lu'}
"One need not enjoy virtue"

{mataHmeH maSachnIS}
"To survive, we must expand"

{nIteb SuvnIS DevwI'}
"A leader must stand alone."

{pIpyuS pach DaSop DaneHchugh, pIpyuS puS DaghornIS}
"If you want to eat pipius claw, you'll have to break a few pipiuses"

need... must... have to... To me, it seems very clear that {-nIS} covers 
all of that.

If something is definitely "required" add a phrase with {poQ}.

Lieven L. Litaer
aka Quvar valer 'utlh
Grammarian of the KLI

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