[tlhIngan Hol] Adverbs with {-qu'}

mayqel qunenoS mihkoun at gmail.com
Fri Dec 2 07:22:48 PST 2016

> The rest of the adverbials modify the sentence
> by going before the object-verb-subject or law'/puS structure.

and if you had an adverbial and a noun with a type-5 suffix, which
would you place first ? I remember discussing this some time ago, and
no definite consensus existing on the matter.

qunnoH jan puqloD

On Fri, Dec 2, 2016 at 4:29 PM, SuStel <sustel at trimboli.name> wrote:
> On 12/2/2016 2:14 AM, PICHLMANN Christoph wrote:
> We have been told (in TKD, I think? Was it reinforced later, or taken away?)
> that klingons only use three classes of words:
> *) nouns
> *) verbs
> *) everything else (the "leftovers")
> Is this still correct?
> Klingon grammarians classify Klingon words into only those three categories,
> yes. Federation grammarians divide the chuvmey up into subcategories to
> assist understanding. Both ways are just systems of organizing our
> understanding of the language and are not prescriptive.
> I'm asking because an "adverb" is something I'd like to put in with "verbs",
> but that is because of the name. Would klingons see an adverb as a form of
> verb, or as <<chuvmey>> that simply "looks and acts" as a verb, but doesn't
> follow all the rules.
> Because if an adverb is considered a verb, shouldn't all verb-affixes be
> allowed?
> But if it's a <<chuvmey>>, then it would make more sense to say that as a
> rule they don't have any affixes, but for this or that word it is known that
> it may take this or that suffix. They'd simply be special cases, as any
> language has.
> (Also, it would keep things simple, IMO.)
> An adverb is not a verb; it is a leftover.
> Wikipedia defines an adverb as "a word that modifies a verb, adjective,
> another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence." It defines an
> adverbial as "a word (an adverb) or a group of words (an adverbial phrase or
> an adverbial clause) that modifies or tells us something about the sentence
> or the verb." Adverbs are a subset of adverbials; the latter has a broader
> meaning. The Klingon Dictionary uses the word adverbial throughout, not
> adverb, with two exceptions: naDev, pa', and Dat are nouns in Klingon but
> adverbs in English; and Klingon adverbials are called adverbs in section 6.7
> of the Addendum.
> When Federation grammarians group some of the chuvmey into adverbials,
> they're saying that these are the words that modify the meaning of the verb
> or sentence, or can sometimes be used as standalone exclamations. There is
> an exceptional adverbial, neH merely, only that modifies both verbs and
> nouns, and does so in a unique position (after); TKD admits calling it an
> adverbial is awkward. The rest of the adverbials modify the sentence by
> going before the object-verb-subject or law'/puS structure.
> Klingon grammarians obviously recognize the adverbial function; they simply
> don't give it a name. Some of the chuvmey, they say, act this way. TKD
> speculates that Klingon grammarians lump all the chuvmey together for
> expediency.
> Unfortunately, both Klingonska and <<boQwI'>> only say "adverb" :-(
> Labeling them as adverbials would have been better.
> --
> SuStel
> http://trimboli.name
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